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Bone and their types | BAMS 1st year anatomy Notes

 The human body is a complex and intricate system, made up of various components and structures that work together to keep us alive and functioning. Among these structures, the bones of the human body play a crucial role in providing support, protection, and movement. In this article, we will explore the 206 bones of the human body and their types, which are essential knowledge for medical students.



The human body has a total of 206 bones, which are divided into two main categories: axial and appendicular. The axial bones comprise the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage, while the appendicular bones include the upper and lower extremities, the shoulder girdle, and the pelvic girdle.


The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones, including the skull, which is made up of 22 bones, the vertebral column, which has 26 bones, and the rib cage, which has 24 bones. The skull has two main parts: the cranium and the facial bones. The cranium protects the brain and is made up of eight bones, while the facial bones support the face and are made up of 14 bones. The vertebral column is divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. The cervical region has seven vertebrae, the thoracic region has 12, the lumbar region has five, the sacral region has five fused vertebrae, and the coccygeal region has four fused vertebrae. The rib cage has 12 pairs of ribs, which attach to the thoracic vertebrae and the sternum, forming a protective cage around the heart and lungs.

The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones, including the upper and lower extremities, the shoulder girdle, and the pelvic girdle. The upper extremities consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands, while the lower extremities consist of the thighs, legs, ankles, and feet. The shoulder girdle is made up of the clavicle and scapula, which attach the arms to the axial skeleton. The pelvic girdle is made up of the hip bones, which attach the legs to the axial skeleton.


Bones can also be classified based on their shape. There are five main types of bones: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones. Long bones are characterized by their long and narrow shape, with a shaft and two ends. Examples of long bones include the femur in the thigh and the humerus in the upper arm. Short bones are characterized by their cube-like shape and are found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones are thin and flat and provide protection for internal organs. Examples of flat bones include the skull, ribs, and sternum. Irregular bones have

a unique shape and are found in various parts of the body, such as the vertebrae and facial bones. Sesamoid bones are small, rounded bones that are embedded in tendons and protect them from wear and tear. The patella, or kneecap, is an example of a sesamoid bone.



In conclusion, the human body has 206 bones, which are essential for support, protection, and movement. These bones are divided into two main categories, axial and appendicular, and can also be classified based on their shape. Understanding the structure and function of the bones is crucial for medical students, as it allows them to diagnose and treat various conditions related to the skeletal system.

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